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  • Writer's pictureKatherine Quilca Barcelli

Choosing the Right Scaling Solution: Appchains, zk Rollups, or Optimistic Rollups?

Updated: Jun 2, 2023

As the blockchain ecosystem continues to advance, developers are persistently exploring effective solutions to address scalability, security, and overall performance. In this blog post, we'll focus on two significant developments in the blockchain space: Appchains and Rollups. We'll provide an overview of these terms, delve into zk rollups and optimistic rollups, and discuss the pros and cons of Appchains and Rollups concerning scalability, decentralization, security, complexity, and cost-effectiveness. Let's jump right in!

Appchains: Tailor-Made Blockchains for Specialized Applications

An Appchain is an independent blockchain tailored to a specific application or use case. Designed to enhance performance and reduce the burden on the main chain, Appchains operate autonomously, managing their transactions and security measures. This enables developers to create and deploy specialized, decentralized applications more efficiently. If you want to dive into what an appchain is, check out our past blog, “App-Specific Blockchains -Appchains – Explained.”

Understanding Rollups: Layer-2 Solutions for Efficient Blockchain Scaling

Rollups are Layer-2 scaling solutions that aggregate multiple transactions into a single proof, which is then submitted to the main chain. This technique decreases the load on the main chain while still leveraging its security. Rollups come in two main types: zk rollups and optimistic rollups.

zk Rollups: Off-Chain Validation with Zero-Knowledge Proofs

zk Rollups are a layer 2 scaling solution that utilizes zero-knowledge proofs to validate transactions off-chain before submitting them to the main chain. This approach ensures that transactions are correct and secure, providing an efficient and scalable solution.

To see how zk rollups work, let’s use the example of a popular blockchain-based game with thousands of players making in-game transactions that can implement zk Rollups to prevent congestion and high gas fees on the main chain. With zk Rollups, the game can bundle a large number of transactions into a single batch, validate them off-chain using zero-knowledge proofs, and submit the proof to the main chain as a single transaction. This approach ensures that the in-game transactions are correct and secure while reducing gas fees and improving transaction finality.

Optimistic Rollups: Validity Assumptions for Scalable Transactions

Optimistic Rollups assume transactions are valid until proven otherwise. Validators submit transaction proofs to the main chain, and if any invalid transactions are detected, they can be challenged. However, a "challenge period" exists, during which challenges can be made, resulting in longer finality times. This challenge period is one of the biggest drawbacks of optimistic rollups, despite their advantages for various blockchain-based applications, including gaming.

Let's stick with a blockchain-based game example, where players trade and sell virtual items like collectible cards. In this scenario, it's easy to see how these features play a role in the gaming experience. Implementing Optimistic Rollups as a Layer-2 scaling solution can improve the game's transaction throughput and reduce the load on the main chain. When a player initiates a trade, the transaction is processed off-chain and assumed to be valid. If another player suspects an invalid transaction, such as a counterfeit card or double-spending attempt, they can issue a challenge. If the challenge proves the transaction to be invalid, it is removed, promoting a secure and efficient gaming ecosystem.

Appchains vs. Rollups: Unwrapping Key Differences and Trade-offs

Now that we've covered the basics, let's delve into a detailed comparison of Appchains and Rollups, examining their pros and cons concerning scalability, decentralization, security, complexity, and cost-effectiveness.


Appchains provide substantial scalability by offloading transaction processing to a separate, dedicated chain. Although Rollups are generally considered more scalable, as they effectively bundle multiple transactions into a single proof, they can introduce delays in transaction finality, especially in optimistic rollups. Appchains offer a more predictable and consistent transaction experience, which is crucial for many applications.


Appchains provide a flexible level of decentralization, as they are independent blockchains customized for specific applications. Developers can determine their Appchain's decentralization by adjusting consensus algorithms, token economics, and other parameters. On the other hand, Rollups offer strong security but may lack decentralization due to a centralized sequencer. Currently, rollups often have a single sequencer managed by the team or foundation, which is a significant centralization point. While there is talk of decentralized sequencers, it remains a distant roadmap milestone.


Appchains and Rollups each have unique security aspects to consider. While securing an Appchain network can be challenging, particularly for smaller projects, their independence mitigates vulnerability to main chain issues. Rollups, as Layer-2 solutions, benefit from main chain security but might face risks due to reliance on validators or operators for transaction validity. Notably, optimistic rollups still lack production-ready fraud proofs, creating a security concern. Additionally, finality differs between the two: Rollups depend on the main chain's finality, taking 2-3 minutes for transactions, while Appchains can achieve faster finality based on their configuration.


Customizability is a key advantage of Appchains, as developers have full control over their blockchain environment. This allows them to tailor it to their specific needs. In contrast, Rollups, particularly zk rollups, offer limited customization options and require a deep understanding of cryptography and blockchain technology. For instance, fees in rollups like Arbitrum are typically paid in ETH, whereas Appchains enable custom fee structures. Despite the complexity of building and maintaining an Appchain, many developers find the customization and control it offers to be worth the effort.


Appchains can provide a cost-effective solution, as transaction fees are determined by the specific Appchain rather than the main chain. Rollups can lower transaction fees by amortizing the cost of multiple transactions over a single proof submission. However, the fees associated with Rollups are still subject to the main chain's fee structure, which can fluctuate significantly during periods of high congestion. Appchains offer more predictable and stable fee structures, making them a more cost-effective choice for many developers.

Why Appchains Outshine Rollups

After examining the pros and cons of Appchains and Rollups, it becomes evident that Appchains hold several advantages over Rollups. Here's a summary of why Appchains are a better choice for many blockchain developers:

  1. Predictable Scalability: Appchains offer consistent and reliable transaction experiences, essential for a wide range of applications. Rollups, while generally more scalable, can introduce delays in transaction finality.

  2. Greater Decentralization: Appchains excel in decentralization, providing developers full control over their blockchain's parameters. Rollups may sacrifice some degree of decentralization due to the reliance on validators or operators.

  3. Flexible Security: Securing appchains can be tough, but shared security from ecosystems like Polkadot or Cosmos help mitigates vulnerabilities. Appchains provide customizable finality times and fraud-proof mechanisms, enabling tailored security for developers.

  4. Customization and Control: Despite the complexity of building and maintaining an Appchain, the ability to tailor the blockchain to specific needs outweighs the implementation challenges for many developers.

  5. Cost-effectiveness: Appchains offer more predictable and stable fee structures compared to Rollups, which are subject to the main chain's fee fluctuations.

In conclusion, while both Appchains and Rollups have their merits, Appchains provide several benefits that make them a more attractive choice for many blockchain developers. By offering predictable scalability, greater decentralization, flexible security, customization, and cost-effectiveness, Appchains hold the edge over Rollups in various scenarios, empowering developers to create innovative decentralized applications tailored to their specific requirements.

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